Stomach Diseases

Stomach pain may be caused by peptic ulcer (stomach or duodenal ulcer), functional dyspepsia, stomach cramp and stomach cancer. Upper endoscopy (Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy) can help to find out the cause of pain.

Peptic ulcer is usually caused by Helicobacter pylori or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The complications of peptic ulcer are bleeding, perforation and stricture formation.

Helicobacter pylori, a bacteria thriving in the stomach, may cause dyspepsia, gastritis, peptic ulcer, stomach lymphoma or even stomach cancer. It can be eradicated by drugs.


Air from the upper digestive tract erupts from the mouth as belching or burps originates from swallowed air (aerophagia). Gum chewing, smoking, drinking carbonated beverages, and gulping food and liquids should be discontinued if belching is troublesome.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Classical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease is heartburn and acid regurgitation. Other symptoms include chest pain, odynophagia, nausea and globus sensation. Complications of gastoesophageal reflux disease are stricture formation, bleeding and adenocarcinoma of esophagus. Hiatus hernia and obesity are risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Smoking, alcohol, spicy food, fatty food, citrus fruits, coffee, chocolate and mints may worsen symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Proton pump inhibitor can effective suppress acid secretion and relieve symptoms though symptoms usually recur when the drug is stopped. Surgery can tighten the lower esophageal sphincter and control the symptoms.